Bladder Cancer Staging

Bladder cancer is staged based on the degree (or depth) of involvement of bladder wall with cancerous growth and whether or not the cancer has spread beyond the bladder to surrounding organs and lymph nodes (metastatic disease).


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Ta = low risk bladder cancer that is limited to urothelium

T1 = bladder cancer invading the submucosa

T2 = bladder cancer invading the muscle layer of the bladder

T3 = bladder cancer invading beyond the muscle of the bladder

T4 = bladder cancer invading adjacent organs

T1 high grade tumors often behave similar to T2 tumors and are treated similarly.

CIS is considered a high risk tumor due to high risk of progression to more invasive disease






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