What is Urology?

Urology is a branch of medicine that deals with urinary (kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra, prostate) and genital / reproductive tracts in men and women (testis, prostate, seminal vesicles, vas deferens, scrotum, vagina, uterus).
What Are Urologists and What do Urologists Treat?

Urologists are surgeons specializing in medical and surgical treatment of diseases affecting the kidneys, urinary tract including ureters, bladder and urethra.  Urologists treat men, women and children.  There are roughly 10,000 urologists in the USA.

There is a common misconception that urologists treat only males. This is not true. Urologists treat men and women.

– 60% of patients are male (BPH, kidney stones, renal/bladder/prostate cancers, urinary incontinence, UTI, ED (erectile dysfunction), infertility.

– 40% of patients are female (kidney stones, renal/adrenal/bladder cancer, urinary incontinence, UTIs, OAB (Overactive bladder), blood in urine, renal cysts, kidney masses)

In addition urologists deal with diseases of the retroperitoneum where urological organs (kidneys, ureters, adrenal glands are located).
Urologists treat surgical diseases of the kidneys (kidney stones, cancer, obstruction of ureters or kidney, infections) while nephrologists treat medical diseases of the kidneys (chronic renal insufficiency,Nephropathies, glomerulopathies, glomerulonephritis, dialysis, etc). Often nephrologists and urologists work together to solve problems that are common to both specialties.

 What do Urologists Treat?

  1. Urinary tract obstruction
    1. BPH / Urinary Retention
    2. Ureteral obstruction (Stones, cancer-rectal/ovarian/colorectal, etc)
  2. Nephrolithiasis (Kidney Stones)
    1. Medical Management + Prevention
    2. Surgical management
  3. Oncology / Cancer Medicine
    1. Adrenal masses / tumors / cancers (incidental and symptomatic)
    2. Renal masses, renal cysts
    3. Bladder cancer  / Urothelial cancers (kidney -> urethra)
    4. Prostate Cancer
  4. Sexual Disorders
    1. Erectile dysfunction “ED” / Impotence / Poor erections. “not hard enough”
    2. Premature ejaculation / “coming too fast”
    3. Hypogonadism (low testosterone)
    4. Priapism (sometimes Sickle cell association)
  5. Infertility
    • Always a “couple” problem. Not a male problem. Not a female problem                                         20% male factor alone
    • 30% female factor alone
    • 50% male + female contribution to the problem
  6. Endocrine disorders
    • Infertility
    • Adrenal – pituitary axis: Cushings syndrome, hyperaldosteronoma, Pheochromocytoma, etc
    • ED  – hypogonadism
  1. Incontinence
    1. Females
    2. Males
    3. Children
  2. Pediatric Urology
    1. UTI
    2. Undescended testis
    3. Pediatric Oncology (Wilms, renal cancers, testicular cancers, etc)



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